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Question 1:

A security manager looked at various logs while investigating a recent security breach in the data center from an external source. Each log below was collected from various security devices compiled from a report through the company\’s

security information and event management server.

Logs:

Log 1:

Feb 5 23:55:37.743: %SEC-6-IPACCESSLOGS: list 10 denied 10.2.5.81 3 packets Log 2:

HTTP://www.company.com/index.php?user=aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

Log 3:

Security Error Alert

Event ID 50: The RDP protocol component X.224 detected an error in the protocol stream and has disconnected the client

Log 4:

Encoder oe = new OracleEncoder ();

String query = “Select user_id FROM user_data WHERE user_name = ` ”

oe.encode ( req.getParameter(“userID”) ) ” ` and user_password = ` ”

oe.encode ( req.getParameter(“pwd”) ) ” ` “;

Vulnerabilities

Buffer overflow

SQL injection

ACL

XSS

Which of the following logs and vulnerabilities would MOST likely be related to the security breach? (Select TWO).

A. Log 1

B. Log 2

C. Log 3

D. Log 4

E. Buffer overflow

F. ACL

G. XSS

H. SQL injection

Correct Answer: BE

Log 2 indicates that the security breach originated from an external source. And the vulnerability that can be associated with this security breach is a buffer overflow that happened when the amount of data written into the buffer exceeded the limit of that particular buffer.


Question 2:

After a security incident, an administrator would like to implement policies that would help reduce fraud and the potential for collusion between employees. Which of the following would help meet these goals by having co-workers occasionally audit another worker\’s position?

A. Least privilege

B. Job rotation

C. Mandatory vacation

D. Separation of duties

Correct Answer: B

Job rotation can reduce fraud or misuse by preventing an individual from having too much control over an area.


Question 3:

A government agency considers confidentiality to be of utmost importance and availability issues to be of least importance. Knowing this, which of the following correctly orders various vulnerabilities in the order of MOST important to LEAST important?

A. Insecure direct object references, CSRF, Smurf

B. Privilege escalation, Application DoS, Buffer overflow

C. SQL injection, Resource exhaustion, Privilege escalation

D. CSRF, Fault injection, Memory leaks

Correct Answer: A

Insecure direct object references are used to access data. CSRF attacks the functions of a web site which could access data. A Smurf attack is used to take down a system.

A direct object reference is likely to occur when a developer exposes a reference to an internal implementation object, such as a file, directory, or database key without any validation mechanism which will allow attackers to manipulate these references to access unauthorized data.

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) is a type of attack that occurs when a malicious Web site, email, blog, instant message, or program causes a user\’s Web browser to perform an unwanted action on a trusted site for which the user is currently authenticated. The impact of a successful cross-site request forgery attack is limited to the capabilities exposed by the vulnerable application. For example, this attack could result in a transfer of funds, changing a password, or purchasing an item in the user\’s context. In effect, CSRF attacks are used by an attacker to make a target system perform a function (funds Transfer, form submission etc.) via the target\’s browser without knowledge of the target user, at least until the unauthorized function has been committed.

A smurf attack is a type of network security breach in which a network connected to the Internet is swamped with replies to ICMP echo (PING) requests. A smurf attacker sends PING requests to an Internet broadcast address. These are special addresses that broadcast all received messages to the hosts connected to the subnet. Each broadcast address can support up to 255 hosts, so a single PING request can be multiplied 255 times. The return address of the request itself is spoofed to be the address of the attacker\’s victim. All the hosts receiving the PING request reply to this victim\’s address instead of the real sender\’s address. A single attacker sending hundreds or thousands of these PING messages per second can fill the victim\’s T-1 (or even T-3) line with ping replies, bring the entire Internet service to its knees.

Smurfing falls under the general category of Denial of Service attacks — security attacks that don\’t try to steal information, but instead attempt to disable a computer or network.


Question 4:

An investigator wants to collect the most volatile data first in an incident to preserve the data that runs the highest risk of being lost. After memory, which of the following BEST represents the remaining order of volatility that the investigator should follow?

A. File system information, swap files, network processes, system processes and raw disk blocks.

B. Raw disk blocks, network processes, system processes, swap files and file system information.

C. System processes, network processes, file system information, swap files and raw disk blocks.

D. Raw disk blocks, swap files, network processes, system processes, and file system information.

Correct Answer: C

The order in which you should collect evidence is referred to as the Order of volatility. Generally, evidence should be collected from the most volatile to the least volatile. The order of volatility from most volatile to least volatile is as follows: Data in RAM, including CPU cache and recently used data and applications Data in RAM, including system and network processes Swap files (also known as paging files) stored on local disk drives Data stored on local disk drives Logs stored on remote systems Archive media


Question 5:

A security engineer is responsible for monitoring company applications for known vulnerabilities. Which of the following is a way to stay current on exploits and information security news?

A. Update company policies and procedures

B. Subscribe to security mailing lists

C. Implement security awareness training

D. Ensure that the organization vulnerability management plan is up-to-date

Correct Answer: B

Subscribing to bug and vulnerability, security mailing lists is a good way of staying abreast and keeping up to date with the latest in those fields.


Question 6:

An analyst connects to a company web conference hosted on www.webconference.com/meetingID#01234 and observes that numerous guests have been allowed to join, without providing identifying information. The topics covered during the web conference are considered proprietary to the company. Which of the following security concerns does the analyst present to management?

A. Guest users could present a risk to the integrity of the company\’s information.

B. Authenticated users could sponsor guest access that was previously approved by management.

C. Unauthenticated users could present a risk to the confidentiality of the company\’s information.

D. Meeting owners could sponsor guest access if they have passed a background check.

Correct Answer: C

The issue at stake in this question is confidentiality of information. Topics covered during the web conference are considered proprietary and should remain confidential, which means it should not be shared with unauthorized users.


Question 7:

A pentester must attempt to crack passwords on a windows domain that enforces strong complex passwords. Which of the following would crack the MOST passwords in the shortest time period?

A. Online password testing

B. Rainbow tables attack

C. Dictionary attack

D. Brute force attack

Correct Answer: B

The passwords in a Windows (Active Directory) domain are encrypted.

When a password is “tried” against a system it is “hashed” using encryption so that the actual password is never sent in clear text across the communications line. This prevents eavesdroppers from intercepting the password. The hash of a password usually looks like a bunch of garbage and is typically a different length than the original password. Your password might be “shitzu” but the hash of your password would look something like “7378347eedbfdd761619451949225ec1”.

To verify a user, a system takes the hash value created by the password hashing function on the client computer and compares it to the hash value stored in a table on the server. If the hashes match, then the user is authenticated and granted access.

Password cracking programs work in a similar way to the login process. The cracking program starts by taking plaintext passwords, running them through a hash algorithm, such as MD5, and then compares the hash output with the hashes in the stolen password file. If it finds a match then the program has cracked the password.

Rainbow Tables are basically huge sets of precomputed tables filled with hash values that are pre-matched to possible plaintext passwords. The Rainbow Tables essentially allow hackers to reverse the hashing function to determine what the plaintext password might be.

The use of Rainbow Tables allow for passwords to be cracked in a very short amount of time compared with brute-force methods, however, the trade-off is that it takes a lot of storage (sometimes Terabytes) to hold the Rainbow Tables themselves.


Question 8:

A new piece of ransomware got installed on a company\’s backup server which encrypted the hard drives containing the OS and backup application configuration but did not affect the deduplication data hard drives. During the incident response, the company finds that all backup tapes for this server are also corrupt. Which of the following is the PRIMARY concern?

A. Determining how to install HIPS across all server platforms to prevent future incidents

B. Preventing the ransomware from re-infecting the server upon restore

C. Validating the integrity of the deduplicated data

D. Restoring the data will be difficult without the application configuration

Correct Answer: D

Ransomware is a type of malware that restricts access to a computer system that it infects in some way, and demands that the user pay a ransom to the operators of the malware to remove the restriction.

Since the backup application configuration is not accessible, it will require more effort to recover the data.

Eradication and Recovery is the fourth step of the incident response. It occurs before preventing future problems.


Question 9:

An administrator wants to enable policy based flexible mandatory access controls on an open source OS to prevent abnormal application modifications or executions. Which of the following would BEST accomplish this?

A. Access control lists

B. SELinux

C. IPtables firewall

D. HIPS

Correct Answer: B

The most common open source operating system is LINUX.

Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) was created by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and is a Linux kernel security module that provides a mechanism for supporting access control security policies, including United States Department of Defensetyle mandatory access controls (MAC).

NSA Security-enhanced Linux is a set of patches to the Linux kernel and some utilities to incorporate a strong, flexible mandatory access control (MAC) architecture into the major subsystems of the kernel. It provides an enhanced mechanism to enforce the separation of information based on confidentiality and integrity requirements, which allows threats of tampering and bypassing of application security mechanisms to be addressed and enables the confinement of damage that can be caused by malicious or flawed applications.


Question 10:

An insurance company has an online quoting system for insurance premiums. It allows potential customers to fill in certain details about their car and obtain a quote. During an investigation, the following patterns were detected:

Pattern 1 -Analysis of the logs identifies that insurance premium forms are being filled in but only single fields are incrementally being updated.

Pattern 2 -For every quote completed, a new customer number is created; due to legacy systems, customer numbers are running out.

Which of the following is the attack type the system is susceptible to, and what is the BEST way to defend against it? (Select TWO).

A. Apply a hidden field that triggers a SIEM alert

B. Cross site scripting attack

C. Resource exhaustion attack

D. Input a blacklist of all known BOT malware IPs into the firewall

E. SQL injection

F. Implement an inline WAF and integrate into SIEM

G. Distributed denial of service

H. Implement firewall rules to block the attacking IP addresses

Correct Answer: CF

A resource exhaustion attack involves tying up predetermined resources on a system, thereby making the resources unavailable to others.

Implementing an inline WAF would allow for protection from attacks, as well as log and alert admins to what\’s going on. Integrating in into SIEM allows for logs and other security-related documentation to be collected for analysis.


Question 11:

The DLP solution has been showing some unidentified encrypted data being sent using FTP to a remote server. A vulnerability scan found a collection of Linux servers that are missing OS level patches. Upon further investigation, a technician notices that there are a few unidentified processes running on a number of the servers. What would be a key FIRST step for the data security team to undertake at this point?

A. Capture process ID data and submit to anti-virus vendor for review.

B. Reboot the Linux servers, check running processes, and install needed patches.

C. Remove a single Linux server from production and place in quarantine.

D. Notify upper management of a security breach.

E. Conduct a bit level image, including RAM, of one or more of the Linux servers.

Correct Answer: E

Incident management (IM) is a necessary part of a security program. When effective, it mitigates business impact, identifies weaknesses in controls, and helps fine-tune response processes.

In this question, an attack has been identified and confirmed. When a server is compromised or used to commit a crime, it is often necessary to seize it for forensics analysis. Security teams often face two challenges when trying to remove a physical server from service: retention of potential evidence in volatile storage or removal of a device from a critical business process.

Evidence retention is a problem when the investigator wants to retain RAM content. For example, removing power from a server starts the process of mitigating business impact, but it also denies forensic analysis of data, processes, keys, and possible footprints left by an attacker.

A full a bit level image, including RAM should be taken of one or more of the Linux servers. In many cases, if your environment has been deliberately attacked, you may want to take legal action against the perpetrators. In order to preserve this option, you should gather evidence that can be used against them, even if a decision is ultimately made not to pursue such action. It is extremely important to back up the compromised systems as soon as possible. Back up the systems prior to performing any actions that could affect data integrity on the original media.


Question 12:

An attacker attempts to create a DoS event against the VoIP system of a company. The attacker uses a tool to flood the network with a large number of SIP INVITE traffic. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to thwart such an attack?

A. Install IDS/IPS systems on the network

B. Force all SIP communication to be encrypted

C. Create separate VLANs for voice and data traffic

D. Implement QoS parameters on the switches

Correct Answer: D

Quality of service (QoS) is a mechanism that is designed to give priority to different applications, users, or data to provide a specific level of performance. It is often used in networks to prioritize certain types of network traffic. It is not designed to block traffic, per se, but to give certain types of traffic a lower or higher priority than others. This is least likely to counter a denial of service (DoS) attack.


Question 13:

There have been some failures of the company\’s internal facing website. A security engineer has found the WAF to be the root cause of the failures. System logs show that the WAF has been unavailable for 14 hours over the past month, in four separate situations. One of these situations was a two hour scheduled maintenance time, aimed at improving the stability of the WAF. Using the MTTR based on the last month\’s performance figures, which of the following calculations is the percentage of uptime assuming there were 722 hours in the month?

A. 92.24 percent

B. 98.06 percent

C. 98.34 percent

D. 99.72 percent

Correct Answer: B

A web application firewall (WAF) is an appliance, server plugin, or filter that applies a set of rules to an HTTP conversation. Generally, these rules cover common attacks such as cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection. By customizing

the rules to your application, many attacks can be identified and blocked.

14h of down time in a period of 772 supposed uptime = 14/772 x 100 = 1.939 %

Thus the % of uptime = 100% – 1.939% = 98.06%

References:

Gregg, Michael, and Billy Haines, CASP CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner Study Guide, John Wiley and Sons, Indianapolis, 2012, pp. 43, 116


Question 14:

An administrator is tasked with securing several website domains on a web server. The administrator elects to secure www.example.com, mail.example.org, archive.example.com, and www.example.org with the same certificate. Which of the following would allow the administrator to secure those domains with a single issued certificate?

A. Intermediate Root Certificate

B. Wildcard Certificate

C. EV x509 Certificate

D. Subject Alternative Names Certificate

Correct Answer: D

Subject Alternative Names let you protect multiple host names with a single SSL certificate. Subject Alternative Names allow you to specify a list of host names to be protected by a single SSL certificate. When you order the certificate, you will specify one fully qualified domain name in the common name field. You can then add other names in the Subject Alternative Names field.


Question 15:

An application present on the majority of an organization\’s 1,000 systems is vulnerable to a buffer overflow attack. Which of the following is the MOST comprehensive way to resolve the issue?

A. Deploy custom HIPS signatures to detect and block the attacks.

B. Validate and deploy the appropriate patch.

C. Run the application in terminal services to reduce the threat landscape.

D. Deploy custom NIPS signatures to detect and block the attacks.

Correct Answer: B

If an application has a known issue (such as susceptibility to buffer overflow attacks) and a patch is released to resolve the specific issue, then the best solution is always to deploy the patch. A buffer overflow occurs when a program or process tries to store more data in a buffer (temporary data storage area) than it was intended to hold. Since buffers are created to contain a finite amount of data, the extra information – which has to go somewhere – can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the valid data held in them. Although it may occur accidentally through programming error, buffer overflow is an increasingly common type of security attack on data integrity. In buffer overflow attacks, the extra data may contain codes designed to trigger specific actions, in effect sending new instructions to the attacked computer that could, for example, damage the user\’s files, change data, or disclose confidential information. Buffer overflow attacks are said to have arisen because the C programming language supplied the framework, and poor programming practices supplied the vulnerability.


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